Daily Current Affairs-Prelims

 

Daily Prelims Test - 20_February_2022

Posted by R&D, KingMakers IAS Academy on Feb 24, 2022 7:29:58 PM

 

1. Tarapur massacre are happened in which of the following state in India?

a)  Punjab

b) Gujarat

c)   Karnataka

d) Bihar

Answer: (d) Bihar

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Sacrifice of 34 freedom fighters of Tarapur in Bihar, now recognised as Shahid Diwas.

●    Bihar CM Nitish Kumar will henceforth be commemorated as 'Shahid Diwas' in memory of the 34 freedom fighters who were killed by police in Tarapur town in Munger district 90 years ago. A look at the incident and recognition. Hence option (d) is correct.

·      The Tarapur massacre was the biggest carried out by the British police after the one in Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar in 1919.

What happened?

·      On February 15, 1932, a group of young freedom fighters planned to hoist an Indian national flag at Thana Bhavan in Tarapur.

·      Police were aware of the plan, and several officers were present at the spot. Around 2 pm, even as the police carried out a brutal lathicharge, Gopal Singh succeeded in raising the flag at Thana Bhavan.

·      A 4,000-strong crowd pelted the police with stones, injuring an officer of the civil administration.

·      The police responded by opening indiscriminate fire on the crowd.

·      After about 75 rounds were fired, 34 bodies were found at the spot, even though there were claims of an even larger number of deaths.

Trigger for protest

·      The hanging of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, and Rajguru in Lahore on March 23, 1931, sent a wave of grief and anger around the country.

·      Following the collapse of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact, the Mahatma was arrested in early 1932.

·      The Congress was declared an illegal organisation, and Nehru, Patel, and Rajendra Prasad were also thrown in jail.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/sacrifice-34-freedom-fighters-tarapur-bihar-shahid-diwas-7777147/

 

 

2. With respect to New India Literacy Programme, Consider the following statements

1) It will cover non-literates of the age of 15 years and above in all state/UTs in the country.

2) It aims to impart foundational literacy and numeracy

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Term “Adult Education” to be replaced with “Education For All”

·      Government approved a new scheme “New India Literacy Programme for the period FYs 2022-2027 to cover all the aspects of Adult Education to align with National Education Policy 2020 and Budget Announcements 2021-22.

·      The National Education Policy 2020 has recommendations for Adult Education and Lifelong Learning.

New India Literacy Programme

·      The scheme will cover non-literates of the age of 15 years and above in all state/UTs in the country. Hence statement 1 is correct

·      The target for Foundational Literacy and Numeracy for FYs 2022-27 is 5 (five) crore learners @ 1.00 crore per year by using “Online Teaching, Learning and Assessment System (OTLAS)”.

·      A learner may register him/herself with essential information like name, date of birth, gender, Aadhaar number, mobile number etc.

·      The scheme will be implemented through volunteerism through online mode.

·      The training, orientation, workshops of volunteers, may be organized through face-to-face mode.

·      All material and resources shall be provided digitally for easy access to registered volunteers.

The objectives of the scheme is:

·      To impart foundational literacy and numeracy. Hence statement 2 is correct

·         To cover other components which are necessary for a citizen of 21st century such as critical life skills (including financial literacy, digital literacy, commercial skills, health care and awareness, child care and education, and family welfare)

·         Vocational skills development (with a view towards obtaining local employment)

·         Basic education (including preparatory, middle, and secondary stage equivalency)

·         Continuing education (including engaging holistic adult education courses in arts, sciences, technology, culture, sports, and recreation etc.)

Source:https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1798805#:~:text=Term%20%E2%80%9CAdult%20Education%E2%80%9D%20to%20be,replaced%20with%20%E2%80%9CEducation%20For%20All%E2%80%9D&text=Government%20approved%20a%20new%20scheme,and%20Budget%20Announcements%202021%2D22.

 

3. Consider the following statements regarding World Sustainable Development Summit

1) It is the annual flagship event of UNEP

2) It is the only Summit on global issues taking place in the developing world.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: PM Modi to inaugurate TERI's World Sustainable Development Summit

·      Prime Minister Narendra Modi will inaugurate The Energy and Resources Institute's (TERI) latest edition of the World Sustainable Development Summit (WSDS) that will deliberate on the planetary resilience in wake of the multitude of extreme weather events across the globe in the recent years.

·      Curated on the theme 'Towards a Resilient Planet: Ensuring a Sustainable and Equitable Future', the experts at the Summit will confer on a range of pressing issues from climate change, sustainable production and energy transitions to global commons and resource security, among others.

·      TERI is a pioneer in these areas and WSDS 2022 will play a crucial part in accentuating our role in providing technological, policy as well as knowledge solutions as India works towards realising the commitments made at COP26

·      The Summit would also see participation of Ministers for Environment from about a dozen countries, representatives from the United Nations, heads of inter-governmental organizations, and delegates from 126 countries

ABOUT WSDS

·      The World Sustainable Development Summit (WSDS) is the annual flagship Track II initiative of The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI). Hence statement 1 is incorrect

·      Instituted in 2001, the Summit series has marked 20 years in its journey of making ‘sustainable development’ a globally shared goal.

·      Over the years, the Summit platform has brought together thought leaders, heads of state and government, scholars, corporates, youth groups, and civil society representatives from across the world.

·      The Summit series has established itself as a responsible and an effective platform for mobilizing opinion-makers to identify and advance pioneering actions to address some of the most relevant issues concerning sustainable development.

·      Perhaps the only Summit on global issues, taking place in the developing world, WSDS now strives to provide long-term solutions for the benefit of global communities by assembling the world’s most enlightened leaders and thinkers on a single platform. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/article/economy-policy/pm-modi-to-inaugurate-teri-s-world-sustainable-development-summit-122021500274_1.html

 

4. Consider the following statements

1) Energy Compacts are voluntary commitments of action, with specific targets and timelines to drive the progress on the achievement of SDG7

2) SDG7 calls for affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all by 2030.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

·      At the “New Frontiers” programme, organised by Ministry of New & Renewable Energy to celebrate AKAM, a compilation of all energy compacts submitted from India during the UN High Level Dialogue on Energy 2021 (Sep,21) was launched.

About Energy Compacts

·      Energy compacts are voluntary commitments from Member States and stakeholders, including companies, regional and local governments, NGOs, and other relevant actors, outlining specific actions they will take to advance progress towards SDG 7 and net-zero emissions. Hence statement 1 is correct

·      Twenty two compacts were submitted from India by PSUs, corporates and smart cities in addition to the national compact submitted by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India.

·      Since affordable, clean energy is a prerequisite for achieving all other SDGs and the Paris Agreement, actions defined in an Energy Compact can be directly linked to Nationally Determined Contributions considered as SDG Acceleration Actions.

·      The energy sector continues to be the most significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) globally, continuing a trend aligned with industrialization.

·      These are ongoing or new commitments with clear, underlying actions that will advance progress on one or more of SDG7’s three core targets.

·      SDG7 calls for “affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all” by 2030. SDG 7 three core targets: Access to energy, Renewable energy, Energy efficiency. Hence statement 2 is correct

Source: https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1798856

 

5. Consider the following statements regarding Food Safety and Standards Authority of India

1) It is an autonomous body established under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare

2) It has been established under the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: How are police station canteens in New Delhi introducing healthy meals?

·      In a first-of-its-kind initiative, four police stations in the national capital’s New Delhi district have been designated as ‘Eat Right Campus’ by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) for providing nutritious and wholesome meals daily to police personnel at their canteens

·      The ‘Eat Right Campus’ initiative led by FSSAI aims to promote safe, healthy and sustainable food in campuses such as schools, universities, colleges, workplaces, hospitals, tea estates etc. across the country.

·      The objective is to improve the health of people and the planet and promote social and economic development of the nation.

·      The initiative is not mandatory to adopt.

About FSSAI

·      The FSSAI is an autonomous body established under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India. Hence statement 1 is correct

·      It has been established under the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 which is a consolidating statute related to food safety and regulation in India. Hence statement 2 is correct

·      It is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the regulation and supervision of food safety.

·      It is headed by a non-executive Chairperson, appointed by the Central Government, either holding or has held the position of not below the rank of Secretary to the Government of India.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/explained-how-are-police-station-canteens-in-new-delhi-introducing-healthy-meals/article65065136.ece

 

6. Consider the following statements regarding Tribunals in India

1) The provision for tribunals was not present in the Constitution originally.

2) It was incorporated in the Indian Constitution by 42nd Amendment Act, 1976.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Tribunal appointments being taken lightly: Supreme Court

·      The apex court said that it is getting requests for extension of time for NCLT (Nation Company Law Tribunal) matters, etc.

·      Some knee-jerk appointments took place and nothing after that.

·      The govt earlier had introduced Tribunal Reforms Bill in 2021, which abolishes nine appellate tribunals and revives provisions of an ordinance struck down by the Supreme Court.

About Tribunals in India

·      Tribunals are institutions established for discharging judicial or quasi-judicial duties.

·      The objective may be to reduce case load of the judiciary or to bring in subject expertise for technical matters.

·      The Supreme Court has ruled that tribunals, being quasi-judicial bodies, should have the same level of independence from the executive as the judiciary. Key factors include the mode of selection of members, the composition of tribunals, and the terms and tenure of service.

·      Tribunals were not part of the original constitution, it was incorporated in the Indian Constitution by 42nd Amendment Act, 1976. Hence statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is correct

·      Article 323-A deals with Administrative Tribunals.

·      Article 323-B deals with tribunals for other matters

·      They are created through a statute, i.e. an act passed by the Government.

·      They are required to act judicially and follow the principles of natural justice.

·      They are not bound by the rules of procedure and evidence prescribed by the civil courts.

·      They are required to act fairly and in an unbiased manner.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/have-some-patience-will-take-up-tribunal-vacancies-issue-soon-sc-tells-lawyers/article65060033.ece

 

7. Consider the following statements regarding Universal Service Obligation Fund

1) It is a non-lapsable Fund.

2) It aims to provide financial support for the provision of telecom services in commercially unviable rural and remote areas of the country

3) The Levy amount is credited to the Consolidated Fund of India.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)   3 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: USO fund levy is excessive, anti-consumer: Reliance Jio

·      Reliance Jio has asked the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India to stop collecting from telecom operators contributions to the Universal Service Obligations (USO) fund until the existing corpus is utilised.

 

·      Jio said the fund has a corpus of ₹58,000 crore, therefore operators need not contribute more. Telcos annually pay 8 per cent of their adjusted gross revenue as licence fee levy.

About Universal Service Obligation Fund

·      The Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF) was formed by an Act of Parliament, was established in April 2002 under the Indian Telegraph (Amendment) Act 2003.

·      It aims to provide financial support for the provision of telecom services in commercially unviable rural and remote areas of the country. Hence statement 2 is correct

·      It is an attached office of the Department of Telecom, and is headed by the administrator, who is appointed by the central government.

·      USOF is a non-lapsable Fund. Hence statement 1 is correct

·      The Levy amount is credited to the Consolidated Fund of India. The fund is made available to USOF after due appropriation by the Parliament. Hence statement 3 is correct

·      The National Optical Fibre Network (NOFN)/ Bharatnet which aims to connect all the 2,50,000 Gram panchayats in the country and provide 100 Mbps connectivity to all gram panchayats (GPs) was funded by the Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF).

Source: https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/info-tech/uso-fund-levy-is-excessive-anti-consumer-reliance-jio/article65055369.ece

 

8. The Falkland Islands are an archipelago in the:

a)  Atlantic Ocean

b) Pacific Ocean

c)   Baltic Sea

d) Indian Ocean

Answer: (a) Atlantic Ocean

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Why has the UK objected to China backing Argentina’s claim to the Falkland Islands?

·      Four decades after the Falklands War between the United Kingdom and Argentina ended bitterly for Buenos Aires, a statement from China on the sidelines of the Winter Olympics, that affirmed Beijing’s support for Argentina’s claim to the Falkland Islands

·      Since the 18th century, the Falkland Islands, located off the coast of Argentina in the south Atlantic Ocean, have always been subjected to colonisation and conquests by Britain, France, Spain and Argentina.

·      Prior to the 1700s, the islands were uninhabited, with France first establishing a colony there in 1764.

·      The next year, when the British arrived to claim the islands for themselves, it marked the start of a dispute that has been ongoing ever since.

·      Argentina has maintained that the Falklands were illegally taken from it in 1833 and invaded the British colony in 1982. That incident resulted in what later came to be known as the Falklands War that lasted a little over three months, ending in victory for the United Kingdom.

About Falkland Islands:

●    The Falkland Islands are an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf. Hence option (a) is correct.

·      The principal islands are to the east of South America’s southern Patagonian coast and to the north of the Antarctic Peninsula.

·      The Falkland Islands are bio geographically part of the Antarctic zone.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-why-uk-objected-china-backing-argentinas-claim-falkland-islands-7778630/#:~:text=Four%20decades%20after%20the%20Falklands,around%20the%20long%2Dstanding%20dispute.

 

9. Consider the following statements regarding Crimson Rose

1) It occurs across mainland Sri Lanka and Peninsular India to West Bengal

2) It is a large swallowtail butterfly.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Thousands of Crimson Rose butterflies fly across ocean from India towards Sri Lanka

·      The pristine beach of Dhanushkodi at the southern-most tip of the Rameswaram island in the Indian peninsula has witnessed a rare phenomenon over the past few days.

About Crimson Rose:

·      The crimson rose (Pachliopta hector) is a large swallowtail butterfly. Hence statement 2 is correct

·         It is a large butterfly with a mix of black, white and crimson colours on its wings and body.

·         Crimson Rose, which belongs to the Swallowtails (Papilionidae) family, is known to migrate along the coast, inland and crosses the sea

·      It is found in India and Sri Lanka and possibly the coast of western Myanmar. Hence statement 1 is correct

·         This butterfly is a migratory species. During the peak of its season, several thousands of these can be found congregating and then they begin migrating to other areas.

·         The most interesting and visually stunning aspect of the migration was that the butterflies made small pit stops on flowering plants on the beach to fuel their journey.

·         Crimson Roses were spotted on Ipomea flowers and Half leaf flowers on the beach. The grandest gathering was on a Calotropis gigantea plant.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/thousands-of-crimson-rose-butterflies-fly-across-ocean-from-india-towards-sri-lanka/article65055049.ece

 

10. Bollgard I and Bollgard II technologies are mentioned in the context of

a)  clonal propagation of crop plants

b) developing genetically modified crop plants

c)   production of plant growth substances

d) production of biofertilizers

Answer: (b) developing genetically modified crop plants

Explanation:

●    Bollgard I Bt cotton (single-gene technology) is India’s first biotech crop technology approved for commercialization in India in 2002, followed by Bollgard II – double-gene technology in mid2006, by the Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC), the Indian regulatory body for biotech crops.

●    Bollgard cotton provides in-built protection for cotton against destructive American Bollworm Heliothis Armigera infestations, and contains an insecticidal protein from a naturally occurring soil microorganism, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).

●    Bollgard II technology contains a superior double-gene technology - Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab which provides protection against bollworms and Spodoptera caterpillar, leading to better boll retention, maximum yield, lower pesticides costs, and protection against insect resistance.

●    Both, Bollgard II and Bollgard insect -protected cotton are widely planted around the world as an environmentally friendly way of controlling bollworms. Hence option (b) is correct.

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