Daily Current Affairs-Prelims

 

Daily Prelims Test - 16_February_2022

Posted by R&D, KingMakers IAS Academy on Feb 24, 2022 6:52:06 PM

 

1. With respect to Sea cucumbers, consider the following statements

1) They are marine invertebrates that live on the seafloor found generally in tropical regions

2) They are an integral part of the coral ecosystem

3) They are found generally in tropical regions.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)   3 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS:Demand for sea cucumbers turns India-Sri Lanka waters into trafficking hotspot

·      From 2015 to 2020, authorities in Sri Lanka and India seized nearly 65 metric tons of sea cucumbers worth more than $2.8 million and arrested 502 people in connection with the attempted trafficking.

·      The sea cucumber fishery is banned in India and restricted under a licensing system in Sri Lanka, but growing demand for the animals in East Asia has turned the waters between these South Asian countries into a hotspot for the illegal trade.

·      The presence of the legal trade in Sri Lanka means Indian fishers can smuggle their catches into the country and launder them into the legal market for export.

·      The Indian Coast Guard made a similar arrest in the waters off Mandapam in Tamil Nadu state. The individuals arrested in that incident were carrying 2 metric tons of sea cucumbers meant to be smuggled by sea into Sri Lanka.

Sea cucumbers

·      Despite their name, sea cucumbers aren’t vegetables; they’re echinoderms, from the same phylum of marine animals that includes starfish and sea urchins, and live on the sandy bottoms of oceans, where they perform the important ecological function of nutrient cycling.

·      Sea cucumbers are marine invertebrates that live on the seafloor found generally in tropical regions. They’re named for their unusual oblong shape that resembles a fat cucumber.

·      They are crucial to maintain the balance of ocean habitats.

·      They are an integral part of the coral ecosystem as one of the main by-products of the sea cucumbers digestion of sand is calcium carbonate and this is essential for the survival of the coral reefs.

·      They act like garbage collectors of the ocean world, and they recycle nutrients, thus playing an important role in keeping coral reefs in good condition.

·      Sea cucumber in India is treated as an endangered species listed under schedule I of Wildlife Protection Act of 1972.

Source: https://india.mongabay.com/2022/02/demand-for-sea-cucumbers-turns-india-sri-lanka-waters-into-trafficking-hotspot/

 

 

2. Consider the following statements regarding Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle

1) It is the third generation launch vehicle of India.

2) It is the first Indian launch vehicle to be equipped with liquid stages.

3) It is a four-staged launch vehicle

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)   3 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: ISRO successfully launches EOS-04, two other satellites

·      PSLV successfully launches EOS-04 and two small satellites from SatishDhawan space centre, Sriharikota

·      The PSLV-C52/EOS-04 mission too has been delayed twice already due to the coronavirus pandemic

About Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle

·      Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) is the third generation launch vehicle of India.

·      It is the first Indian launch vehicle to be equipped with liquid stages.

·      PSLV has four stages using solid and liquid propulsion systems alternately.

·      It is a four-staged launch vehicle with first and third stages using solid rocket motors and second and fourth stages using liquid rocket engines.

·      After its first successful launch in October 1994, PSLV emerged as the reliable and versatile workhorse launch vehicle of India with 39 consecutively successful missions by June 2017.

·      During 1994-2017 period, the vehicle has launched 48 Indian satellites and 209 satellites for customers from abroad.

·      PSLV earned its title “the workhorse of ISRO” through consistently delivering various satellites to Low Earth Orbits, particularly the IRS series of satellites.

·      It can take up to 1,750 kg of payload to sun-synchronous polar orbits of 600 km altitude. 

·      Due to its unmatched reliability, PSLV has also been used to launch various satellites into Geosynchronous and Geostationary orbits, like satellites from the IRNSS constellation.

·      The PS4 is the uppermost stage of PSLV, comprising of two Earth storable liquid engines.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/isros-pslv-c52-lifts-off-with-earth-observation-and-2-small-satellites-7772120/#:~:text=The%20Indian%20Space%20Research%20Organisation,spaceport%20in%20Sriharikota%2C%20Andhra%20Pradesh.

 

 

3. Consider the following statements regarding TilkaManjhi

1) He was an Indian freedom fighter the first Adivasi leader from Paharia Community.

2) He was led the famous SanthalHool in 1784 against the exploitative British.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS:Nation remembers revolutionary freedom fighter, tribal leader TilkaManjhi on his 272nd birth anniversary

·      In 1770, there was a severe famine in the Santhal region and people were dying of hunger.

·      He was an Indian freedom fighter the first Adivasi leader from Paharia(Hill Peoples) Community.

·      He organized Adivasis into an army and led the famous SanthalHool in 1784 against the exploitative British.

·      TilkaManjhi looted the treasury of the Company and distributed it among the poor and needy.

·      Inspired by this noble act of Tilka, many other tribals also joined the rebellion. With this began his SanthalHool, the revolt of the Santhals.

·      He continued to attack the British and their sycophantic allies. From 1771 to 1784, TilkaManjhi never surrendered.

·      TilkaMajhi attacked Augustus Cleveland, an East India Company administrator and fatally wounded him.

·      The British surrounded the Tilapore forest from which he operated but he and his men held them at bay for several weeks.

·      When he was finally caught in 1784, he was tied to the tail of a horse and dragged all the way to the Collector's residence at Bhagalpur, Bihar, India. There, his lacerated body was hung from a Banyan tree.

Source: https://newsonair.gov.in/News?title=Nation-remembers-revolutionary-freedom-fighter%2C-tribal-leader-Tilka-Manjhi-on-his-272nd-birth-anniversary&id=435303

 

4. Which of the following statements are correct regarding Erra Matti Dibbalu?

a)  It is a traditional Assamese food

b) It is a gulf between Yemen and Arabian Sea

c)   It is a wood used to make toys in Odisha

d) It is rare red sand dunes located in Andhra Pradesh

Answer: (d) It is rare red sand dunes located in Andhra Pradesh

Explanation:

In NEWS: Citizens join hands to preserve the geological marvel of Erra Matti Dibbalu in Visakhapatnam

·      Locals in Vishakhapatnam have taken up the initiative to preserve one of their heritages, Erra Matti Dibbalu, a notified National Geo-heritage monument. Also called the Red Sand Hills, Erra Matti Dibbalu is one of many heritage sites of Visakhapatnam.

·      A group of 45 people took up a cleaning drive at the geo-heritage site and collected bagfuls of waste.

·      Erra Matti Dibbalu are rare red sand dunes and carry with them millions of years of geological processes.

·      The dissected and stabilized coastal red sediment mounds are located between Vishakhapatnam and Bhimunipatnam.

·      These are one of the notified national geo-heritage monuments and are valuable scientific documents that are an important link to the history of geological evolution.

·      The dunes comprise a light yellow sand dune at the top followed by a brick red sand unit, and a reddish-brown concretion bearing sand unit with yellow sand at the bottom.

·      However, the dunes are very fragile and are vulnerable to natural degradation.

·      Studies indicate that the area was tectonically active between 2.5 million years and 11,000 years ago.

·      The sediments are mainly derived from the Khondalite rocks from the hinterland of the Eastern Ghats.

·      Geologically these red sand dune sediments particularly hold significance.

·      They are the result of the combined effect of numerous factors including global climatic changes, sea-level variations, monsoonal variability and as a result serves as valuable paleo-environment indicators.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/society/history-and-culture/citizens-join-hands-to-preserve-the-geological-marvel-of-erra-matti-dibbalu-in-visakhapatnam/article38413427.ece

 

5. Consider the following statements regarding Geo-heritage sites

1) They are geological areas of scientific, cultural, and academic value.

2) In India, Geological Survey of India declares geo-heritage sites

3) There are a total of 34 geo-heritage sites in India.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)   3 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS:Locals take up clean-up drives at Erra Matti Dibbalu, India’s treasure of geological evolution

·      Locals in Vishakhapatnam have taken up the initiative to preserve one of their heritages, Erra Matti Dibbalu, a notified National Geo-heritage monument.

What is a Notified National Geo-heritage?

·      Geo-heritage sites are geological areas of scientific, cultural, and academic value.

·      Some sites also hold economic importance. For eg, the Laterite in Angadipuram, Malappuram district, Kerala is significant from the economic angle since mineral deposits of aluminium ore (bauxite), iron ore, and nickel ore are known to be associated with them.

·      Geological Survey of India (GSI) declares geo-heritage sites/ national geological monuments for their protection and maintenance. For eg; Rajasthan’s Akal Fossil Wood Park in Jaisalmer or the Lonar Lake, in Buldana district, Maharashtra. 

How many are there in India? 

·      There are a total of 34 geo-heritage sites in India.

·      This includes Sikkim’s Stromatolite bearing Dolomite / Limestone of Buxa Formation at Mamley, near Namchi, South district; Nagaland’s NagahillOphiolite Site near Pungro, Odisha’s Pillow Lava in iron ore belt at Nomira, Keonjhar district, Gujarat’s Sedimentary Structures – Eddy Markings, Kadan Dam, PanchMahals district and more.  

·      Bedded Barytes, Mangampeta, Cuddapah district, Andhra Pradesh was the first national geological monument in India.

·      It was formed by precipitation from various volcanic vapours under submarine conditions and sub-aerial showering of ash and molten barite.

·      On the other hand, Zawar Lead-zinc mine in Udaipur, Rajasthan is the 34th in the country. 

Why are geo-heritage sites important? 

·      In addition to holding information regarding evolution, geo-heritage sites are also important from a tourism point of view for the country.

·      These sites play a major role in promoting geo-tourism in the country and take tourism even to remote corners. 

·      Further, they are an attraction to studies and research work due to the vast information they hold which can lead to a better understanding of the evolution, the formation of the subcontinent, the orogeny, the palaeoenvironment, and the exotic collection of paleo – flora and fauna.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/society/history-and-culture/citizens-join-hands-to-preserve-the-geological-marvel-of-erra-matti-dibbalu-in-visakhapatnam/article38413427.ece

 

6. Consider the following statements regarding Lassa fever

1) It is a viral haemorrhagic fever

2) It is found in India

3) It is primarily transmitted to humans via contact with food or household itemsthrough rats

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)   3 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS:Lassa fever causes concern in the UK

A person has died after three cases of Lassa fever were confirmed in the UK. The cases have been linked to travel to West African countries.

What is Lassa fever?

·      Lassa fever is caused by a virus of the same name, which was first discovered in a town named Lassa in Nigeria in 1969.

·      As per the Centers for Disease Control and Pollution (CDC), lassa fever is an animal-borne, or zoonotic, acute viral illness.

·      The fever is usually spread by rats and is primarily found in parts of West Africa including Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea, and Nigeria.

·      An estimated 100,000 to 300,000 infections of Lassa fever occur annually, with approximately 5,000 deaths, the CDC notes.

·      Infection can spread through contact with household items of food that is contaminated with the urine or feces of an infected rat.

·      Slight fever, fatigue, weakness and headache and more serious symptoms include bleeding, difficulty breathing, vomiting, facial swelling, pain in the chest, back, and abdomen and shock.

·      The best way to avoid getting infected is to avoid contact with rats.

·      Ribavirin, an antiviral drug, has been used to successfully treat Lassa fever in patients.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-what-is-lassa-fever-and-what-are-its-symptoms-7773656/

 

7.Consider the following statements regarding Public order

1) It is one of the grounds to restrict free speech and other fundamental rights.

2) According to the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution, the power to legislate on aspects of public order rests with the states

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: What is public order: Constitutional provision for curbing freedoms

The Karnataka High Court is hearing a challenge to the constitutionality of the state government’s ban on students wearing a hijab in educational institutions

What is public order?

·      Public order is one of the three grounds on which the state can restrict freedom of religion. Public order’ is also one of the grounds to restrict free speech and other fundamental rights. Hence statement 1 is correct

·      Article 25 of the Constitution guarantees to all persons right to freedom and conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate religion subject to public order, morality and health.

·      Public order is normally equated with equated with public peace and safety.

·      According to List 2 of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution, the power to legislate on aspects of public order rests with the states. Hence statement 2 is correct

How does it relate to the hijab ban?

·      According to the government order issued on February 5 under the Karnataka Education Act, 1983, “public order” is one of the reasons for not allowing students to wear a headscarf in educational institutions along with “unity” and “integrity.”

How has public order been interpreted by courts?

·      What affects public order is contextual and is determined by the state. But courts have broadly interpreted it to mean something that affects the community at large and not a few individuals.

·      In Ram Manohar Lohia vs State of Bihar (1965), the Supreme Court held that in the case of ‘public order’, the community or the public at large have to be affected by a particular action

·      Public order is not every breach of law and order. Public order is an aggravated form of disturbance that is much higher than a law and order issue

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/what-is-public-order-constitutional-provision-for-curbing-freedoms-7775718/

 

8. Consider the following statements

1) He was built the Impenetrable Lohagarh Fort

2) He was played a key role in the battle of Panipat 

3) He is often described as the Plato of the Jat people and by a modern writer as the Jat Odysseus

Which of the following personality is described in the statements above?

a)  Badan Singh

b) Maharaja Surajmal

c)   Maharana Pratap

d) Rana Sanga

Answer: (b) Maharaja Surajmal

 

Explanation:

In NEWS: PM pays tributes to Maharaja Surajmal on his Jayanti

●    Maharaja Suraj Mal Sujan Singh, was born on 13 February 1707. Hence option(b) is correct

·      He was a Hindu Jat ruler of Bharatpur in Rajasthan, India.

·      He visualized “India as one nation” and devoted his life in forging national integration.

·      A contemporary historian had described him as “the Plato of the Jat tribe” and by a modern writer as the “Jat Odysseus”, because of his “political sagacity, steady intellect and clear vision”.

·      The Jats, under Suraj Mal, overran the Mughal garrison at Agra. Suraj Mal was killed in an ambush by the Rohilla troops on the night of 25 December 1763 near Hindon River, Shahadra, Delhi.

·      In 1750, he defeated the Mughal Army of Salabat Khan and forced the latter to accept all his terms.

·      In support of Safdar Jung, he plundered the old Delhi during the civil war among the Mughals.

·      Lohagarh Fort was built by the Maharaja Surajmal and even after attacking 13 times, Britishers could not penetrate it.

·      Maharaja Surajmal played a key role in the 3rd Battle of Panipat 1761 in which Marathas lost to the invading armies of Afghan general Ahmed Shah Abdali.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetailm.aspx?PRID=1798049

 

9. Recently, the Democracy Index is released by which of the following international organisation?

a)  Economist Intelligence Unit

b) Freedom House

c)   Transparency International

d) Reporters Without Borders

Answer: (a) Economist Intelligence Unit

Explanation:

In NEWS: India's score declined significantly in recent years in EUI Democracy Index

·      The Indian government's failure to crack down on the persecution of religious and other minorities by Hindu nationalists continues to weigh on the country's democracy score, which has declined significantly in recent years

●    India has ranked 46th position in the 2021 Democracy Index’s global ranking, according to The Economist Intelligence Unit. Hence option(a) is correct

·      With the highest score of 9.75, Norway topped the Democracy Index 2021 by Economist Intelligence. The list was published on February 10, 2022.

·      India scored 6.91 to rank 46th on the list. Our neighbour Pakistan has been placed further below in the hybrid regime with a rank of 104

·      The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) was created in 1946. It is the research and analysis division of The Economist Group and the world leader in global business intelligence.

Source: TH

 

10.The terms 'WannaCry, Petya and EternalBlue' sometimes mentioned in the news recently are related to

a)  Exoplanets

b) Cryptocurrency

c)   Cyber attacks

d) Mini satellites

Answer: (c)Cyber attacks

Explanation:

●    The WannaCryransomware attack was a May 2017 worldwide cyberattack by the WannaCryransomwarecryptoworm, which targeted computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system by encrypting data and demanding ransom payments in the Bitcoincryptocurrency. It propagated through EternalBlue, an exploit in older Windows systems released by The Shadow Brokers a few months prior to the attack.

●    Petya is a family of encrypting ransomware that was first discovered in 2016. The malware targets Microsoft Windows -based systems, infecting the master boot record to execute a payload that encrypts a hard drive's file system table and prevents Windows from booting. It subsequently demands that the user make a payment in Bitcoin in order to regain access to the system.Hence option(c) is correct

 

 

 

 

 

 

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