Daily Current Affairs-Prelims

 

Daily Prelims Test - 15_February_2022

Posted by R&D, KingMakers IAS Academy on Feb 24, 2022 6:45:43 PM

 

1. With respect to One Ocean Summit, consider the following statements:

1) It is organised by India in cooperation with the United Nations and the World Bank.

2) It aims to mobilize the international community to take action towards preserving and supporting healthy and sustainable ocean ecosystems.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: India committed to eliminating single-use plastic, says PM Modi

·      India is committed to eliminating single-use plastic and the Indian Navy will contribute 100 ship days to clean the plastic waste from the sea

·      India has always been a maritime civilisation. India supports the French initiative of a high ambition coalition on biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction. We hope for a legally binding international treaty this year

·      This comes as the Economic Survey 2021-22 announced recently said that India has progressed on the fulfilment of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), India has progressed on the fulfilment of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

·      India would phase out single-use plastic by 2022.

·      The country recently undertook a nationwide awareness campaign to clean plastic and other waste from coastal areas.

About One Ocean Summit

·      The goal of the One Ocean Summit is to raise the collective level of ambition of the international community on marine issues and to translate our shared responsibility to the ocean into tangible commitments. Hence statement (2) is correct

·      The “One Ocean Summit” will be held in the context of the French Presidency of the Council of the European Union, with the support of the United Nations. Hence statement (1) is incorrect

Source: TH

 

2. Consider the following statements regarding e-RUPI

1) It is a one-time contactless and cashless voucher-based mode of payment

2) It has been developed in collaboration with the Department of Financial Services, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare and National Health Authority.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: e-Rupi limit hike to promote offline digital payment push

·      The increase in the e-Rupi voucher cap to ₹1 lakh will boost digital payments in the offline mode and allow direct benefit transfers without having to have a bank account

About e-RUPI

·         e-RUPI is basically a digital voucher which a beneficiary gets on his phone in the form of an SMS or QR code. It is a pre-paid voucher, which he/she can go and redeem it at any centre that accepts its.

·         e-RUPI is a one-time contactless, cashless voucher-based mode of payment that helps users redeem the voucher without a card, digital payments app, or internet banking access. Hence statement (1) is correct

·         e-RUPI should not be confused with Digital Currency which the Reserve Bank of India is contemplating. Instead e-RUPI is a person specific, even purpose specific digital voucher.

·         The National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI), which oversees the digital payments ecosystem in India, has launched e-RUPI, a voucher-based payments system to promote cashless transactions.

·         It has been developed in collaboration with the Department of Financial Services, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare and National Health Authority. Hence statement (2) is correct

Source: TH

 

3. Consider the following statements regarding Chandernagore

1) It was the first trading post on the eastern bank of the Hooghly

2) It is set up by the French in 1696.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Restoration of French heritage structure at Chandernagore will be completed soon: Ambassador Lenain

·      The Registry Building, a two-storied structure at Chandernagore built in 1875 and a symbol of French settlement of the colonial town, has been awaiting restoration for a long time.

·      Chandernagore, or Chandannagar, was the first trading post on the eastern bank of the Hooghly, set up by the French in 1696. Hence statement (1) is correct and statement (2) is correct

·      The French purchased Chandernagore from the Mughal Governor of Bengal.

·      France was the last of the major European maritime powers of the 17th century to enter the East India trade.

·      The French settlement in India began in 1673 with the purchase of land at Chandernagore from the Mughal Governor of Bengal.

·      The next year they acquired Pondicherry from the Sultan of Bijapur. Both became the centers of maritime commercial activities of the French in India.

·      Joseph Francois Dupleix who was initially appointed as Intendent of Chandernagore in 1731, sowed the seeds of colonization.

·      The village, which hitherto was engaged in maritime commerce along with Pondicherry, got fortified by him.

Significance of Chandernagore

·      Chandernagore, though a part of French colonies in India, was unique in many ways.

·      It was very active in spearheading the freedom movement against the British. Due to its close proximity to Calcutta, it became a safe haven for freedom fighters of all hues.

·      Even Aurobindo Ghosh who was one of the accused in the Alipore Bomb case of 1909, was acquitted unconditionally and after a short stay at Chandernagore moved to Pondicherry.

·      Since the partition of Bengal in 1905, Chandernagore was in the thick of activities of freedom fighters against the British and produced several martyrs including Kanailal Dutt.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/kolkata/restoration-offrenchheritage-structureat-chandernagore-will-be-completed-soon-ambassador-lenain/article65045633.ece

 

 

4. Consider the following statements regarding World Food Programme

1) It is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations

2) It is headquartered in Rome

3) It is the world’s largest humanitarian organization, saving lives in emergencies and using food assistance to build a pathway to peace

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)   3 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: India signs MoU to hand over wheat to WFP in Kandahar

·      India signed an agreement with the United Nation’s World Food Programme (WFP) for the distribution of 50,000 MT of wheat that it has committed to sending Afghanistan as part of a humanitarian assistance, with diplomatic efforts under way to begin sending truck convoys through Pakistan by road

About World Food Programme

·      The World Food Programme is the world’s largest humanitarian organization, saving lives in emergencies and using food assistance to build a pathway to peace, stability and prosperity for people recovering from conflict, disasters and the impact of climate change. Hence statement (3) is correct

·      It is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations. Hence statement (1) is correct

·      Founded in 1961, it is headquartered in Rome and has offices in 80 countries. Hence statement (2) is correct

·      In addition to emergency food relief, WFP offers technical assistance and development aid, such as building capacity for emergency preparedness and response, managing supply chains and logistics etc.

·      The agency is also a major provider of direct cash assistance and medical supplies, and provides passenger services for humanitarian workers.

·      WFP is an executive member of the United Nations Development Group, a consortium of UN entities that aims to fulfil the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), with a priority on achieving SDG 2 for “zero hunger” by 2030.

·      The World Food Programme was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2020 for its efforts to provide food assistance in areas of conflict, and to prevent the use of food as a weapon of war and conflict.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-signs-mou-to-hand-over-wheat-to-wfp-in-kandahar/article38420123.ece

5. Consider the following statements regarding SMILE Scheme

1) It is set to provide welfare and rehabilitation to the Transgender community

2) It provides Scholarships for Transgender Students studying in IX and till post-graduation to enable them to complete their education.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Union Minister for Social Justice & Empowerment Dr. Virendra Kumar launches “SMILE” scheme

Union Minister for Social Justice & Empowerment Dr. Virendra Kumar launched the Central Sector scheme “SMILE: Support for Marginalised Individuals for Livelihood and Enterprise”.

About “SMILE” scheme

·      The Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment has allocated 365 crore rupees for the scheme from 2021-22 to 2025-26.

·      It is set to provide welfare and rehabilitation to the Transgender community and the people engaged in the act of begging. Hence statement (1) is correct

·      It includes two sub-schemes – ‘Central Sector Scheme for Comprehensive Rehabilitation for Welfare of Transgender Persons’ : It includes various components.

·      It provides Scholarships for Transgender Students studying in IX and till   post-graduation to enable them to complete their education. Hence statement (2) is correct

·      It has provisions for Skill Development and Livelihood under the PM-DAKSH scheme.

·      Through Composite Medical Health it provides a comprehensive package in convergence with PM-JAY supporting Gender-Reaffirmation surgeries through selected hospitals.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1797968

 

6. Consider the following statements regarding INSPIREsat-1

1) It is a student satellite developed by the Thiruvananthapuram-based Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology

2) It will study the dynamics of the upper atmosphere and carries an X-ray spectrometer for studying solar flares.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: ISRO successfully launches EOS-04, two other satellites

·      The first signals from INSPIRESat-1, the student satellite launched aboard the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle C-52 (PSLV C-52/EOS-04) mission on Monday, indicate that the satellite is 'healthy' and in orbit as planned, officials of the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology

·      The two scientific payloads aboard the 8.1 kg satellite, meant to study ionosphere dynamics and the sun's coronal heating processes, are expected to be 'switched on' in a few days.

About INSPIREsat-1

·      INSPIRESat-1 is part of a constellation of satellites planned under the International Space Program in Research and Education (INSPIRE) involving the Small-spacecraft Systems and Payload Centre (SSPACE) at IIST, LASP, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore, and National Central University (NCU), Taiwan. Hence statement (1) is correct

·      INSPIRESat-1 CubeSat, developed under the International Satellite Program in Research and Education (INSPIRE).

·      A constellation of earth and space-weather observation satellites is envisaged under the INSPIRE programme.

·      The INSPIRESat-1 mission was originally planned for 2020 but was delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

·      The small satellite that weighs less than 10 kg will be launched aboard an upcoming Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) mission of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).

·      It is equipped with a Compact Ionosphere Probe for studying the earth's ionosphere.

·      It has been fully integrated, tested and will be placed in a low earth orbit

·      This satellite will study the dynamics of the upper atmosphere and carries an X-ray spectrometer for studying solar flares. Hence statement (2) is correct

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/inspiresat-1-satellite-healthy-iist/article65049546.ece

7. Consider the following statements regarding Volcanic lightning

1) It is a mysterious phenomenon that generally occurs at the early stages of a volcanic eruption

2) It happens in close to the ground in dense ash clouds, and high up near the stratosphere in the plume of volcanic smoke

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Volcanic lightning spreads across sky after Mount Etna erupts in Italy. See photos and videos

·      Even though ash was spread into the air up to 10 kilometres above sea level, there was no casualty or damage.

·      Bolts of volcanic lightning were seen in the sky over eastern Sicily in Italy after a powerful eruption of Mount Etna

About Volcanic lightning

·      Volcanic lightning is a mysterious phenomenon that generally occurs at the early stages of a volcanic eruption. Hence statement (1) is correct

·      It happens in two places: close to the ground in dense ash clouds, and high up near the stratosphere in the plume of volcanic smoke. Hence statement (2) is correct

·      The tiny particles that make up a volcanic plume are tightly compressed beneath a volcano. The airy atmosphere above ground, however, is much less dense. This change in density contributes to volcanic lightning.

·      As densely packed particles are violently ejected in a volcanic plume, they rub against each other. Through friction, ash particles gain and lose electrons & become electrically charged.

·      As charged particles ascend the less-dense volcanic plume, the plume experiences charge separation. Positively charged particles become increasingly separated from negatively charged particles.

·      When the charge separation becomes too great for air to resist the flow of electricity, lightning tears through the volcanic plume to connect the positively and negatively charged particles.

·      In case of Sky-high volcanic lightning ice is the major cause. Scientists think that as the plume of ash and water vapour rises from the volcano, ice begins to form in its highest layers. From there, lightning forms the same way it does in a thundercloud: ice crystals colliding build up enough of an electric charge to trigger a lightning strike

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/trending/trending-globally/volcanic-lightning-mount-etna-eruption-italy-7770271/

 

8. Consider the following statements regarding JIVA Programme

1) It is an agro ecology-based programme launched by the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development

2) It is a culmination of several projects under the watershed programme

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: NABARD launches JIVA to promote natural farming under its existing watershed, wadi programmes

·      The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) on Wednesday launched an agroecology-based programme JIVA that will promote natural farming under its existing watershed and wadi programmes in 11 states. Hence statement (1) is correct and statement (2) is correct

·      JIVA is a culmination of several projects under the watershed programme

·      It will be implemented on our existing completed (or near completed) watersheds and wadis in 11 states covering five agroecological zones, which are in ecologically fragile and rain-fed areas

·      JIVA aims to ensure using the principles of agroecology long-term sustainability and transform the pre-existing social and natural capital, and nudge the farming community towards natural farming as commercial farming cannot work in these regions.

·      For JIVA, NABARD will collaborate with national and multilateral agencies as this is a knowledge and skill-intensive programme.

·      NABARD will initially collaborate with the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Australia, for simple soil water monitoring technology and ICAR for research support for scientific validation of natural farming practices

Source: https://www.newindianexpress.com/business/2022/feb/09/nabard-launches-jiva-to-promote-natural-farming-under-its-existing-watershed-wadi-programmes-2417379.html

 

9. Consider the following statements regarding Special Category Status

1) The Constitution does not include any provision for categorization of any State in India as a Special Category Status State.

2) Special Category Status State used to be granted to some regions that have historically been at a disadvantage compared with the rest of the country

3) This decision was taken by the National Development Council

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)   3 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Special Category Status to A.P. is a settled issue: BJP leader

Amid the demands by the YSR Congress Party (YSRCP) and Telugu Desam Party (TDP) leaders that the Centre must grant Special Category Status (SCS) to Andhra Pradesh

What is Special Category Status ?

·      Special Category Status used to be granted to some regions that have historically been at a disadvantage compared with the rest of the country. Hence statement (2) is correct

·      This decision was taken by the National Development Council (NDC), a body of the former Planning Commission. Hence statement (3) is correct

·      The Constitution does not include any provision for categorization of any State in India as a Special Category Status (SCS) State. Hence statement (1) is correct

·      In the year 1969, the 5th Finance Commission (Chairman Mahavir Tyagi) had given status of Special Category States to 3 states (Jammu & Kashmir, Assam and Nagaland) on the basis of Gadgil Formula. The reason for giving special status to these 3 states was the social, economic and geographical backwardness.

·      The Centre pays 90 percent of the funds required in a centrally-sponsored scheme to special category status category states as against 60 percent in case of normal category states, while the remaining funds are provided by the state governments.

Criteria for granting status are :

·      The state which is facing the problem of resources crunch.

·      Hilly and difficult terrain.

·      Low per capita income.

·      Non-viable nature of state finances.

·      Economic and infrastructural backwardness.

·      Presence of sizeable tribal population.

·      Strategic location along international borders.

·      Low population density.

Special Category States at present :

·      They are 7 States of North-Eastern region (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura), Sikkim, Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/andhra-pradesh/special-category-status-to-ap-is-a-settled-issue-bjp-leader/article65048938.ece

 

 

10. With reference to ‘Agenda 21’, sometimes seen in the news, consider the following statements:

1) It is a global action plan for sustainable development.

2) It originated in the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in 2002

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

·      Agenda 21 is a comprehensive plan of action to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organizations of the United Nations System, Governments, and Major Groups in every area in which human impacts on the environment.

·      Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and the Statement of principles for the Sustainable Management of Forests were adopted by more than 178 Governments at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3 to 14 June 1992. Hence statement (1) is correct and Hence statement (2) is incorrect.

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