Daily Current Affairs-Prelims

 

Daily Prelims Test - 14_February_2022

Posted by R&D, KingMakers IAS Academy on Feb 24, 2022 6:33:02 PM

 

1. Consider the following statements regarding Koalas

1) They are endemic to Australia

2) Recently, they were listed as an endangered species

3) They survive on a strict diet of up to a kilogram of eucalyptus leaves per day.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 and 3 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)   1 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Why Australia has listed koalas as endangered species

·      As per WWF report, Koala population inhabited parts of Australia 25 million years ago but, today only one species remains- the Phascolarctos cinereus. Hence statement 2 is correct

·      Koalas are found in the southeast and eastern sides of Australia – in coastal Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia and Victoria. Hence statement 1 is correct

·      They survive on a strict diet of up to a kilogram of eucalyptus leaves per day. Hence statement 3 is correct

·      Due to low nutrition value of these leaves, Koalas tend to sleep for extended periods (often up to 18 hours a day) to conserve energy.

·      Koalas has been on the row of extinction for over two decades. According to The Guardian report, Koalas declined between 33% and 61% since 2001 in NSW and decreased by at least half in Queensland.

·      In 2012, Koalas were classified as “Vulnerable”.

·      2019 catastrophic bushfires (now known as “Black Summer”) impacted 60,000 Koalas by destroying their Eucalyptus rich habitat.

·      Another major threat is the spread of Chlamydia, a sexually transmitted disease that causes blindness and cysts in Koalas reproductive tract

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-why-australia-has-listed-koalas-as-endangered-species-7768081/

 

2. Consider the following statements regarding District Development Coordination and Monitoring Committee

1) It is headed by an MP elected from the district.

2) It is formed to fulfil the objective of ensuring a better coordination among all the elected representatives in Parliament, State Legislatures and Local Governments

3) It is required to meet at least once in a quarter.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 and 3 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)   1 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Only one-fourth the number of required Disha meetings being held, minister informs Lok Sabha

·      District Development Coordination and Monitoring Committee, also known as Disha, is responsible for monitoring the implementation of 43 government schemes and programmes including NREGS and PMGSY.

·      Headed by an MP elected from the district, a Disha is required to meet at least once in a quarter. In a year, at least four meetings of Disha are required to be held. Hence statement 1 is correct and statement 3 is correct

About District Development coordination and Monitoring committee

·      District Development coordination and Monitoring committee (DISHA) is formed to fulfill the objective of ensuring a better coordination among all the elected representatives in Parliament, State Legislatures and Local Governments for efficient and time-bound development of districts in our country. Hence statement 2 is correct

·      These Committees could monitor the implementation of the programmes and promote synergy and convergence for greater impact.

·      For years, District Vigilance and Monitoring Committees had the oversight mandate of a handful of schemes run by the rural development ministry but in 2016, they were superseded by DISHA which was charged with monitoring 41 central schemes, ranging from infrastructure and power, education and food security to rural development.

·      This committee will have coordination and Monitoring powers.

·      Its role is to facilitate the timely execution of approved projects. It will have powers in seeking effective follow up of issues raised during the deliberation.

Composition

·      The Chairperson of the DISHA should be a Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha) elected from the district, nominated by the Ministry of Rural Development

·      One MP (Rajya Sabha) representing the State and exercising an option to be associated with the district level Committee of that district (on first come basis), to be designated as Co Chairpersons by the Ministry of Rural Development

Member secretary:

·      The Member Secretary of the DISHA should be the District collector

·      All Members of the State Legislative Assembly elected from the district

·      One representative of the State Govemment / UT Administration

·      All Mayors / the Chairpersons of Municipalities and five elected heads of Gram Panchayat

·      Chairperson of the Zila Panchayat

·      Head of the Autonomous District Council in districts having Schedule VI Areas

·      And nominated members

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/india/only-one-fourth-the-number-of-required-disha-meetings-being-held-minister-informs-lok-sabha-7768559/

 

3. With respect to Parker Solar Probe, Consider the following statements

1) It aims to study the heating of the solar corona

2) It is a European Space Agency space probe

3) It is the first spacecraft to fly into low solar corona.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 and 3 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)   1 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 3 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Parker Solar Probe Captures its First Images of Venus' Surface in Visible Light, Confirmed

·      NASA’s Parker Solar Probe has taken its first visible light images of the surface of Venus from space. Hence statement 2 is incorrect

·      Smothered in thick clouds, Venus’ surface is usually shrouded from sight. But in two recent flybys of the planet, Parker used its Wide-Field Imager, or WISPR

·      WISPR to image the entire nightside in wavelengths of the visible spectrum – the type of light that the human eye can see – and extending into the near-infrared.

Parker Solar Probe

·      Parker Solar Probe is a historic mission, flying into the Sun's atmosphere (or corona) for the first time.

·      It reached to within 9.86 solar radii from Sun’s centre. By 2025, it will travel at closest approach. It is the first spacecraft to fly into low solar corona. Hence statement 3 is correct

·      It is set to fly into the sun’s corona within 3.8 million miles from the solar surface, seven times closer than any other spacecraft.

·      Coming closer to the Sun than any previous spacecraft, Parker Solar Probe will employ a combination of in situ measurements and imaging to achieve the mission's primary scientific goal: to understand how the Sun's corona is heated and how the solar wind is accelerated.

·      Parker Solar Probe will revolutionize our knowledge of the origin and evolution of the solar wind.

The primary science goals for the mission are:

·      To trace the flow of energy and understand the heating of the solar corona and to explore what accelerates the solar wind. Hence statement 1 is correct

·      Determine the structure and dynamics of the plasma and magnetic fields at the sources of the solar wind.

·      Explore dusty plasma near the Sun and its influence on solar wind and solar energetic particles formation.

·      Explore mechanisms that accelerate and transport energetic particles.

Source: https://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/parker-solar-probe-humanity-s-first-visit-to-a-star

 

4. Consider the following statements regarding National Health Authority

1) It is the apex body responsible for implementing India’s flagship public health insurance/assurance scheme

2) It is governed by a Governing Board chaired by the NITI Aayog Head

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: National Health Authority announces integration of Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission with Aarogya Setu app

·      The National Health Authority on Friday announced the integration of its flagship Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission with the Aarogya Setu app, allowing users to create the 14-digit unique Ayushman Bharat Health Account numbers from the app.

·      According to an official statement, this integration takes the benefits of the Ayushman Bharat Health Account (ABHA) number to the Aarogya Setu user base.

·      People can use their ABHA number to link their existing and new medical records, including doctor prescriptions, lab reports, hospital records and also share those with health professionals and health service providers.

About NHA

·      National Health Authority (NHA) is the apex body responsible for implementing India’s flagship public health insurance/assurance scheme called “Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana” & has been entrusted with the role of designing strategy, building technological infrastructure and implementation of “National Digital Health Mission” to create a National Digital Health Eco-system. Hence statement 1 is correct

·      NHA has been set-up to implement PM-JAY, as it is popularly known, at the national level. An attached office of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare with full functional autonomy, NHA is governed by a Governing Board chaired by the Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare. Hence statement 2 is incorrect

·      To implement the scheme at the State level, State Health Agencies (SHAs) in the form of a society/trust have been set up by respective States. SHAs have full operational autonomy over the implementation of the scheme in the State including extending the coverage to non SECC beneficiaries.

·      NHA is leading the implementation for Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission ABDM in coordination with different ministries/departments of the Government of India, State Governments, and private sector/civil society organizations.

Functions of NHA under PM-JAY

·      Formulation of various operational guidelines related to PM-JAY, model documents and contracts to ensure standardization and interoperability.

·      Determine the central ceiling for premium (or maximum central contribution for trusts) per family per year to be provided to the States/UTs and review it from time to time, based on field evidence and actuarial analysis.

·      Set up effective and efficient mechanisms to pay to the health care providers.

·      Set up systems and processes for convergence of PM-JAY with other health insurance/assurance schemes

Source: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/india/national-health-authority-announces-integration-of-ayushman-bharat-digital-mission-with-aarogya-setu-app/articleshow/89509859.cms

 

 

5. Consider the following statements regarding Habeas corpus

1) It is recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court.

2) In India, the power to issue a writ of habeas corpus is vested only in the High Court.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (a) 1 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Supreme Court notice to govt. on habeas corpus plea by children of detained Pakistan national

·      The Supreme Court decided to examine a habeas corpus plea made by the children of a Pakistan national who they believe has been unlawfully detained for seven years.

 Habeas Corpus

·      Habeas corpus is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court. Hence statement 1 is correct

·      He/she can request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.

·      In India the power to issue a writ of habeas corpus is vested only in the Supreme Court and the High Court. Hence statement 2 is incorrect

·      Habeas corpus is the writ which was visualized as an effective means to provide a quick remedy to a person who has lost his personal liberty without any legal justification.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/supreme-court-notice-to-govt-on-habeas-corpus-plea-by-children-of-detained-pakistan-national/article38415542.ece

 

6. Consider the following statements regarding Swami Dayanand Saraswati

1) He was a founder of the Arya Samaj

2) He was the first to give the call for Swaraj

3) He was an advocated the doctrine of Karma and Reincarnation.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)   3 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Prakash Javadekar pays tributes to Swami Dayanand Saraswati on his birth anniversary

·      He was an Indian philosopher, social leader and founder of the Arya Samaj, a reform movement of the Vedic dharma. Hence statement 1 is correct

·      He was the first to give the call for Swaraj as "India for Indians" in 1876, a call later taken up by Lokmanya Tilak. Hence statement 2 is correct

·      He believed in the infallible authority of the Vedas.

·      Dayananda advocated the doctrine of Karma and Reincarnation.

·      He emphasized the Vedic ideals of brahmacharya, including celibacy and devotion to God.

·      For 15 years he led the life  of a wandering scholar in  search of knowledge. Finally, he spent two and a half years at Mathura as a disciple of a blind saint scholar Swami Virjananda, who taught him the philosophic interpretation of the Vedas and then charged him with the mission to purge Hinduism of all its ugly accretions and aberrations. Hence statement 3 is correct

·      He believed that Hinduism had been corrupted by divergence from the founding principles of the Vedas and that Hindus had been misled by the priesthood for the priests' self-aggrandizement. 

·      He translated the Vedas and wrote three books viz. Satyartha Prakash in Hindi, Veda Bhasya Bhumika, an introduction to his Vedic commentary, and Veda Bhasya, a Vedic commentary in Sanskrit on the Yajurveda and the major part of the Rig-Veda.

Source: https://newsonair.gov.in/News?title=Prakash-Javadekar-pays-tributes-to-Swami-Dayanand-Saraswati-on-his-birth-anniversary&id=409701#:~:text=Information%20and%20Broadcasting%20Minister%20Prakash,the%20founder%20of%20Arya%20Samaj.

 

7. With respect to Volatile organic compounds, Consider the following statements

1) They are carbon-containing chemicals released by petrol and diesel vehicles

2) They can have a natural origin

3) Benzene is the only VOC included in the ambient air-quality standards

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   3 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Electric vehicles can lower emissions of volatile organic compounds in India by 2030: Study

·      India can slash emissions of volatile organic molecules (VOC) by 76 per cent in the next eight years by swapping all two- and three-wheelers with electric vehicles and all diesel-fuelled ones with Compressed Natural Gas

About Volatile organic compounds

·      VOCs are carbon-containing chemicals released by petrol and diesel vehicles. Hence statement 1 is correct

·      They impact air quality and human health.

·      VOCs can have a natural origin, too. Hence statement 2 is correct

·      Plants emit these chemicals to attract pollinators, defend themselves from pests and predators and adapt to environmental stress.

·      Benzene, a chemical that induces cancer, is the only VOC included in the ambient air-quality standards. Hence statement 3 is correct

·      VOCs can irritate the eyes, nose and throat, damage body organs and cause cancer.

·      VOCs can drive the formation of other dangerous pollutants. For instance, they react with sunlight and nitrogen dioxide to form ground-level ozone.

·      VOCs also trigger the formation of PM2.5, a pollutant that reaches deep into the lungs, affecting their normal functioning. It is also linked to medical conditions such as asthma and heart disease.

Source: https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/pollution/electric-vehicles-can-lower-emissions-of-volatile-organic-compounds-in-india-by-2030-study-81488

 

8. With respect to Exercise Milan, Consider the following statements

1) It is a biennial and multilateral naval exercise

2) It has so far been held at Port Blair in Andaman and Nicobar islands

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Navy’s largest exercise Milan to bring together over 35 countries

·      The Navy is set to hold the 12th President’s Fleet Review (PFR) on February 21 at Visakhapatnam and few days from that it will host the largest multilateral exercise in this region, Milan 2022, which will see participation of all major Navies including Quad countries.

About Exercise Milan

·      It is a biennial, multilateral naval exercise which started in 1995. Hence statement 1 is correct

·      It has so far been held at Port Blair in Andaman and Nicobar but is now being shifted to Visakhapatnam which offers more infrastructure as well as sea space for the exercise. Hence statement 2 is correct

·      It has several themes such as anti-submarine warfare among others along with deliberations, including by subject matter experts.

·      The areas of cooperation of the exercise include capacity building, marine domain awareness, training, hydrography, technical assistance, and operational exercises.

·      During the exercise, the Navy will also be showcasing its Deep Submergence Rescue Vessel (DSRV) capabilities meant to rescue submarines in distress.

·      India is one of the few countries in the region which possesses this capability.

·      This year’s Milan will see the participation of all Quad countries, with the U.S. being invited for the first time

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/navys-largest-exercise-milan-to-bring-together-over-35-countries/article38414936.ece

 

 

9. Consider the following statements regarding Mission Indradhanush

1) It was launched by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

2) It aim of expanding immunization coverage to all children across India

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: India implementing largest immunisation programme globally: Mansukh Mandaviya

·      India is implementing the largest inoculation drive globally where annually more than three crore pregnant women and 2.6 crore children are covered through the Universal Immunisation Programme

·      The Minister launched the Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 4.0 virtually in presence of health officials of various States and Union Territories

·      It will ensure that Routine Immunisation (RI) services reach unvaccinated and partially vaccinated children and pregnant women.

Mission Indradhanush

·      Mission Indradhanush (MI) was launched by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) on 25th December 2014 with the aim of expanding immunization coverage to all children across India. Hence statement 1 is correct and Hence statement 2 is correct

·      Children across socio-economic, cultural and geographical spectrums in India, are being immunized under this program.

·      The initiative's mammoth task is being fulfilled with the support of an integrated and committed task-force, ensuring full immunisation coverage.

·      Every MI activation is planned to the last detail; from planning where camps will be set up to which children need to get vaccinated and what vaccinations will be required for the camp.

·      The Mission Indradhanush aims to cover all those children who are either unvaccinated, or are partially vaccinated against vaccine preventable diseases.

·      India’s Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) provide free vaccines against 12 life threatening diseases, to 26 million children annually.  

Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI):

·      It has been launched by the Government to reach each and every child under two years of age and all those pregnant women who have been uncovered under the routine immunisation programme. 

·      The special drive will focus on improving immunization coverage in selected districts and cities to ensure full immunization to more than 90% by December 2018 but only 16 districts in the country have achieved 90% coverage so far.

·      It will cover low performing areas in the selected districts and urban areas

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-implementing-largest-immunisation-programme-globally-mansukh-mandaviya/article38391913.ece

 

 

10. In India, markets in agricultural products are regulated under the [PYQ 2015]

(a)                      Essential Commodities Act, 1955

(b)                     Agricultural Produce Market Committee Act enacted by States

(c)                       Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act, 1937

(d)                     Food Products Order, 1956 and Meat and Food Products Order, 1973

Answer: (b) Agricultural Produce Market Committee Act enacted by States

Explanation:

·      Agricultural Produce Market Committee Acts of respective states are responsible for markets in agricultural product. Hence option (b) is correct

Topics: UPSC, IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS, Civil Services Examination, prelims, prelims practice questions, Prelims mcq, prelims mcq questions

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