Daily Current Affairs-Prelims

 

Daily Prelims Test - 13_February_2022

Posted by R&D, KingMakers IAS Academy on Feb 24, 2022 6:28:41 PM

 

1. Consider the following statements regarding White Cheeked Macaque.

1) It is protected under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 of India.

2) Recently, it is discovered in the Western Ghats ranges

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (d) Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Scientists discovered the existence of White-Cheeked Macaque in Arunachal Pradesh

·      In an important discovery, scientists have recorded presence of White-Cheeked Macaque from central Arunachal Pradesh in India. Hence statement 2 is incorrect

·      The significance of the discovery is that it marks a new addition to mammals of India.

·      It was first discovered in 2015 by a group of Chinese scientists from South-Eastern Tibet.

·      This macaque is distinct from other macaques found in the region as it displays white cheeks, long and thick hairs on the neck area and a longer tail.

·      It is also the last mammal to have been discovered in Southeast Asia.

·      It has NOT been yet included in the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 of India. Hence statement 1 is incorrect

·      The potential threat to all species of macaques in the landscape is due to hunting by locals for consumption and habitat degradation due to urbanization and infrastructure development.

·      The number of these mammals reported from India stands at 434.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/scientists-find-white-cheeked-macaque-in-arunachal-pradesh/article38399803.ece

 

2. Recently, the term Mission Vatsalya is seen in news, it is related to

a)  Rehabilitation of children

b) Check water availability in arid region

c)   Open school accept

d) Conservation of sea mammals

Answer: (a) Rehabilitation of children

Explanation:

In NEWS: WCD ministry allocated Rs 25,172 crore, rise of just 3%

·      Accordingly, Mission Shakti, Mission Vatsalya, Saksham Anganwadi and Poshan 2.0 were launched recently to provide integrated benefits to women and children.

·      For Mission VATSALYA (Child Protection Services and Child Welfare Services), the budget allocated was Rs 1,472 crore, an increase from Rs 900 crore in 2021-22.

Mission VATSALYA

·      Under the scheme, financial assistance is provided to the State UT Governments for providing services which include institutional care, non-institutional care, support for capacity building, human resources etc. Hence option (a) is correct

·      Grants are also provided for setting up and maintenance of various types of Child Care Institutions (CCIs) including children homes, observation homes, special homes, place of safety, open shelters etc.

·      CCIs provide for age-appropriate education, access to vocational training, recreation, health care, counselling etc.

·      The Ministry of Women and Child Development is implementing a Centrally sponsored scheme ‘Child Protection Services (CPS) Scheme’ – Mission Vatsalya for rehabilitation of children in difficult circumstances including, orphan or destitute children

Source: https://www.business-standard.com/budget/article/budget-2022-wcd-ministry-allocated-rs-25-172-crore-rise-of-just-3-122020101443_1.html

 

3. Consider the following statements regarding International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

1) It aims to build the world's largest tokamak to prove the feasibility of fusion as a large-scale and carbon-free source of energy.

2) India is a member of this project

3) It will be the first fusion device to maintain fusion for long periods of time.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 and 3 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)   1 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: Scientists set new record in creating energy from nuclear fusion

·      Scientists in the United Kingdom have achieved a new milestone in producing nuclear fusion energy, or imitating the way energy is produced in the Sun.

·      Energy by nuclear fusion is one of mankind’s long standing quests as it promises to be low carbon, safer than how nuclear energy is now produced and, with an efficiency that can technically exceed a 100%.

About International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor(ITER)

·      ITER is one of the most ambitious energy projects in the world today.

·      In southern France, 35 nations are collaborating to build the world's largest tokamak, a magnetic fusion device that has been designed to prove the feasibility of fusion as a large-scale and carbon-free source of energy based on the same principle that powers our Sun and stars. Hence statement 1 is correct

·      ITER will be the first fusion device to produce net energy.

·      ITER will be the first fusion device to maintain fusion for long periods of time. Hence statement 3 is correct

·      And ITER will be the first fusion device to test the integrated technologies, materials, and physics regimes necessary for the commercial production of fusion-based electricity.

·      The design of ITER since the idea for an international joint experiment in fusion was first launched in 1985.

·      The ITER Members—China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States—are now engaged in a 35-year collaboration to build and operate the ITER experimental device, and together bring fusion to the point where a demonstration fusion reactor can be designed. Hence statement 2 is correct

·      India became a full seventh partner of ITER in December 2005. India is contributing resources worth about Rs 20,000 crore or about $2.2 billion (in cash & kind) but will get access to 100% of the intellectual property related to ITER

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/scientists-in-britain-smash-fusion-energy-record/article38403008.ece

 

4. Consider the following statements regarding Solar flares

1) They are highly energetic phenomena that happen inside the sunspots.

2) This causes the emission of high energy x-ray radiation and highly accelerated charged particles to leave the Sun’s surface.

3) This does not impact earth’s magnetosphere.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)   1 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Geomagnetic storm that killed Starlink satellites

·      Elon Musk’s Starlink has lost dozens of satellites that were caught in a geomagnetic storm a day after they were launched.

·      The satellites were designed to burn up on re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere, and did not create debris in space.

·      However, the loss of 40 satellites — most of a launch batch — in a single solar event has been described as “unheard of” and “huge”.

Solar Flare

·         Solar Storms occur during the release of magnetic energy associated with sunspots 

·         It can last for a few minutes or hours.

·         Solar flares are highly energetic phenomena that happen inside the sunspots. Hence statement 1 is correct

·         In a solar flare, the energy stored in the Sun’s magnetic structures is converted into light and heat energy.

·         This causes the emission of high energy x-ray radiation and highly accelerated charged particles to leave the Sun’s surface. Hence statement 2 is correct

·         Not all solar flares reach Earth, but solar flares/storms, solar energetic particles (SEPs), high-speed solar winds, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that come close can impact space weather in near-Earth space and the upper atmosphere.

·         Solar storms can hit operations of space-dependent services like global positioning systems (GPS), radio, and satellite communications.

·         Geomagnetic storms interfere with high-frequency radio communications and GPS navigation systems.

·         Aircraft flights, power grids, and space exploration programmes are vulnerable. Hence statement 3 is incorrect

·         During a CME, enormous bubbles of superheated gas – called plasma – are ejected from the sun.

·         Over the course of several hours, a billion tons of material are lifted off the sun’s surface and accelerated to speeds of a million miles per hour (1.6 million kilometres per hour).

·         This can happen several times a day when the sun is most active.

·         During its quieter periods, CMEs occur only about once every five days.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/geomagnetic-storm-that-killed-starlink-sats-7764995/

 

5. What is a SAMRIDH Initiative?

a)  It aims to improve access to affordable and quality healthcare for vulnerable populations

b) It aims to increase the area under bamboo plantation in non-forest Government and private lands

c)   It aims to promote agricultural education.

d) It aims to facilitate affordable regional air connectivity.

Answer: (a) It aims to improve access to affordable and quality healthcare for vulnerable populations

Explanation:

In NEWS: NITI Aayog, USAID to collaborate in healthcare

·         The Atal Innovation Mission (AIM), NITI Aayog, and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) announced a new partnership under the Sustainable Access to Markets and Resources for Innovative Delivery of Healthcare (SAMRIDH) initiative

·         USAID, IPE Global, and stakeholders from the Indian government, private sector and academia developed the innovative SAMRIDH blended finance facility in 2020, for combining philanthropic and public funds with commercial capital, in a bid to create and rapidly scale market-based health solutions.

·         It aims to improve access to affordable and quality healthcare for vulnerable populations in tier-2 and tier-3 cities, and rural and tribal regions. Hence option (a) is correct

·         This partnership will enhance SAMRIDH’s efforts for reaching vulnerable populations and leveraging expertise of AIM in innovation and entrepreneurship.

·         AIM and SAMRIDH will leverage public sector resources and philanthropic capital for offsetting barriers for commercial investments across small and medium health enterprises for investing in and scale healthcare solutions.

·         This collaboration will also focus on innovations across the healthcare landscape with a common goal to mount an effective response towards the ongoing third wave of COVID-19.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/niti-aayog-usaid-to-collaborate-in-healthcare/article38397640.ece

 

 

6. With respect to Madhwacharya, Consider the following statements

1) It is the founder of the Dvaita school of philosophy.

2) His greatest work is considered to be Anuvyakhyana

3) He was the third of the trinity of philosophers who influenced Indian thoughts after the ages of the Vedas and Puranas

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)   1 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

In NEWS: PM Modi pays obeisances to Madhwacharya on occasion of Madhwa Navami

7th Centenary Celebrations of Sri Madhwacharya on the occasion of Madhwa Navami.

About Madhwacharya

·         Madhwacharya was the third of the trinity of philosophers who influenced Indian thoughts after the ages of the Vedas and Puranas. Hence statement 3 is correct

·         He came after Sri Shankaracharya and Shri Ramanujacharya.

·         He propounded the philosophy of Dwaita or Dualism. Hence statement 1 is correct

·         Shri Madhwacharya was born to Narayana Bhatta and Vedavati in Pajaka, a small place near Udupi.

·         He was born in 1238, on the auspicious day of Vijayadashami, and he was named Vasudeva.

·         Madhwacharya is traditionally considered as the third prominent incarnation of Vayu after Hanuman and Bhima.

·         He was initiated into Sanyasa by Achyutapreksha, a great teacher belonging to the Advaita School of Philosophy. At the time of initiation, he was given the name Purnaprajna.

·         He accepted three correct means of knowledge - Pratyaksha (perception) , Anuman (inference) & Sabda (testimony of past experts)

·         His greatest work is considered to be Anuvyakhyana - a philosophical supplementary in poetic form to his commentary on Brahma sutras. Hence statement 2 is correct

Dvaita Philosophy

·         There are two tattvas (reality) primarily - independent and dependent

·         Brahman is the cause of universe and the independent realities, while the created universe consists of Jiva (sentient soul) and Jada (non-sentient matter), is the dependent reality.

·         For liberation, mere intellectual conceptualization of Brahman as creator is not enough, the individual soul must feel attraction, love, attachment and devotional surrender to Him, and only his grace leads to redemption and liberation

Source: PIB

 

7. Consider the following statements regarding Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication

1) It is an international network for banks worldwide to facilitate smooth money transactions globally

2) It is headquartered in Belgium.

3) It holds funds on its own and manages external client accounts.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)   1 only

d) 1,2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained | What is SWIFT and why is Russia being threatened with exclusion from the service?

·         SWIFT is a messaging network used by banks and financial institutions globally for quick and faultless exchange of information pertaining to financial transactions. Hence statement 1 is correct

·         As tensions exacerbate between Washington and Moscow over Ukraine, political commentators say that the United States could, as a last resort, exclude Russia from the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT), an international network for banks worldwide to facilitate smooth money transactions globally.

·         The move could have serious repercussions on how Russian banks carry out international financial transactions.

About SWIFT

·         SWIFT is the global messaging software and is headquartered in Brussels, Belgium. Hence statement 2 is correct

·         It is a global member-owned cooperative.

·         It allows financial entities to send and receive messages about financial transactions in a secure, standardised and reliable environment.

·         It was founded in 1973 to develop a secure electronic messaging service and common standards to facilitate cross-border payments.

·         SWIFT neither holds funds on its own nor manages external client accounts. Hence statement 3 is incorrect

·         Each participant on the platform is assigned a unique eight-digit SWIFT code or a bank identification code (BIC).

·         If a person, say, in New York with a Citibank account, wants to send money to someone with an HSBC account in London, the payee would have to submit to his bank the London-based beneficiary’s account number along with the eight-digit SWIFT code of the latter’s bank.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/scientists-in-britain-smash-fusion-energy-record/article38403008.ece

 

8. Consider the following statements regarding Fairbank's disease

1) It is a rare genetic disorder

2) It affects the growing ends of bones.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: CASES OF FAIRBANK'S DISEASE AND ACROMEGALY IN INDIA

·      The Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare, informed Rajya Sabha about the Cases of Fairbank’s disease and Acromegaly in India.

·      Fairbank's disease or multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a rare genetic disorder (dominant form: 1 in 10,000 births) that affects the growing ends of bones. Hence statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is correct

·      The Fairbank’s disease (Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia) patient usually requires management of pain and orthopedic procedures, for which facilities are available at tertiary care institutions in India.

·      Long bones normally elongate by expansion of cartilage in the growth plate (epiphyseal plate) near their ends. As it expands outward from the growth plate, the cartilage mineralizes and hardens to become bone (ossification). This process is defective.

·      Joint pain and fatigue after exercising. A waddling gait may develop. The spine is normal but may have a few irregularities, such as scoliosis.

Acromegaly

·      Another rare disorder, Acromegaly is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone, most often from a tumor in the pituitary gland.

·      The disorder causes increased height when it manifests in childhood and adolescent age group, before the fusion of bony epiphysis.

·      Enlarged hands and feet, Excessive sweating and body odor, Small outgrowths of skin tissue, Pain and limited joint mobility etc.

·      The most common treatments for acromegaly are surgery, medication and radiation therapy.

·      The somatostatin drug used for Acromegaly is a scheduled drug as per the National List of Essential Medicines 2015.

Source:https://pib.gov.in/PressReleaseIframePage.aspx?PRID=1796442#:~:text=The%20Fairbank's%20disease%20(Multiple%20epiphyseal,tertiary%20care%20institutions%20in%20India.

 

9. Consider the following statements regarding Chintamani Padya Natakam

1) It was written in 1920 by playwright Kallakuri Narayana Rao

2) It is about chintamani, a courtesan and a devotee of Lord Krishna, who finds salvation by singing bhajans.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)  1 only

b) 2 only

c)   Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation:

In NEWS: Explained: Why has Andhra govt banned 100-year-old play ‘Chintamani Padya Natakam’?

·      Earlier this year, the Andhra Pradesh government banned a 100-year-old play named ‘Chintamani Padya Natakam’.

·      The Arya Vysya community has been petitioning governments for several years to ban the play, saying it portrays them in a negative light.

·      The play is exhibited across the state, mainly in rural areas, during festivals and fairs.

What is Chintamani Natakam?

·      ‘Chintamani Padya Natakam’ was written in 1920 by playwright Kallakuri Narayana Rao, who was also a social reformer. Hence statement 1 is correct

·      The play is about Chintamani, a courtesan and a devotee of Lord Krishna, who finds salvation by singing bhajans. Hence statement 2 is correct

·      She is courted by Subbi Shetty, a businessman from the Arya Vysya community, who loses his wealth and family due to his attraction to Chintamani.

·      The original play had a social message, but over the years, it has been modified purely for entertainment.

What is the Arya Vysya community objecting to in the play?

·      Much of the play sees central character Subbi Shetty made fun of, especially for losing all his wealth to his vices.

·      Arya Vysya community leaders say the content and dialogues are offensive, and they are ridiculed about their appearance through the character, which is always portrayed as a short and dark-coloured person.

·      The play has undergone many changes over the decades, and to make it more entertaining and funny, crude and vulgar language is used in many places, drawing the ire of the community.

Source: https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/andhra-pradesh-chintamani-padya-natakam-ban-explained-7765602/

 

10. In a pressure cooker, the temperature at which the food is cooked depends mainly upon which of the following?

1) Area of the hole in the lid

2) Temperature of the flame

3) Weight of the lid

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

a)  1 and 2 only

b) 2 and 3 only

c)   1 and 3 only

d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

Explanation:

·         Inside a pressure cooker the boiling point is increased by increasing the pressure. Hence cooking is faster. Hence statement 1 is correct

·         Therefore the temperature at which food is cooked is affected by the pressure and not temperature of the flame. This can also be understood by understanding why cooking is difficult on hills. Hence statement 2 is correct

·         At high altitudes, atmospheric pressure is lower, reducing the boiling point of water as compared to that at sea level. Hence statement 3 is incorrect

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