Daily Current Affairs-Prelims

 

Daily Prelims Test - 08_February_2022

Posted by R&D, KingMakers IAS Academy on Feb 10, 2022 6:25:49 PM

 

1. Basai Wetlands are located in which of the following region in India?

a)    Karnataka

b)    Andhra Pradesh

c)     Tamilnadu

d)    Haryana

 

Answer: (d) Haryana

 

Explanation:

 

In NEWS: Basai wetlands: An oasis in the heart of a concrete jungle

More than an address for fancy high-rise apartments, Sector 101 of Gurugram is a place of ecological importance.

·       It is for the residents — and the authorities — to fathom the critical role the Basai wetlands here plays for nature and for people.

·       The 250-acre shallow wetland has shrunk to a quarter of its original size over the years.

·       Home to 300-plus species of rare, common and migratory birds, Basai is recognised as a key biodiversity area by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the Wildlife Institute of India and the BirdLife International, a global network of NGOs that work to protect bird habitats.

·       The Basai wetlands was a top birdwatching destination where the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS) had documented 281 species of avian population. But the number of species has steadily declined with each passing year

·       The problem is lack of awareness about the history and importance of wetlands among the people. The marshy wilderness is seen as wasteland to be dumped with garbage.

·       Given the accelerated expansion of the city of the future, the wetland continues to disappear under newly laid roads, modern housing constructions and other infrastructure development.

·       An upcoming expressway, cutting through the terrain here, has majorly impacted the flyway of thousands of migratory birds from Europe and Central Asia.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/basai-wetlands-an-oasis-in-the-heart-of-a-concrete-jungle/article38389774.ece

 

 

 

2. Consider the following statements

1)    Any celestial body that is following the orbit of another celestial body is referred to as Trojan.

2)    Mother earth has two Trojan.

3)    Both Earth Trojans have been discovered in the L4 points.

 

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)    1 and 2 only

b)    2 and 3 only

c)     1 only

d)    1,2 and 3

 

Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

 

Explanation:

 

In NEWS: Earth has a second ‘Trojan’ asteroid, will share its orbit for next 4,000 years

·       Astronomers have confirmed the existence of a second Earth Trojan, an asteroid that shares the same orbit as our planet, going around the Sun. The trojan was detected in 2020 and is named 2020 XL5.

·       It is a near-earth asteroid (NEO) that is expected to stay in orbit for the next 4,000 years before deviating away.

·       The asteroid was discovered by the Pan-STARRS S1 telescope survey on 12 December 2020 and is estimated to be about 1.18 km wide. The first known Earth Trojan asteroid was 2010 TK7, just about 0.3 km wide, and discovered in 2010.

·       2020 XL5 is a C-type or carbonaceous asteroid, the most common variety of asteroid, consisting of large amounts of carbon.

·       They are found in large numbers in the outer edge of the asteroid belt. Astronomers guess that this asteroid was kicked out of the asteroid belt by Jupiter’s gravity before getting captured here.

·       Detecting Earth trojans is difficult because they are located on the same plane as the Earth and the Sun. The L4 and L5 points are located 60 degrees from Earth, making them appear very close to the Sun. Thus, they are observable only during a short window at twilight, and are better visible from space.

·       The Pan-STARRS or Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System is a ground-based telescope used for astronomical imaging, located at Haleakala Observatory in Hawaii.

Trojan co-orbiters

·       Trojans are asteroids that share orbit with a planet.

·       They can do so because they tend to be present at one of the stable Lagrange Points in the Earth-Sun system.

·       Both earth trojans have been discovered in the L4 point, which is located 60 degrees in orbit ahead of Earth.

·       No trojans have been discovered in the L5 point, which trails earth.

·       Jupiter has more than one million Trojans. Mars has only nine Trojans, Uranus has two, Neptune has 28 and mother earth has two.

Source: https://theprint.in/science/earth-has-a-second-trojan-asteroid-will-share-its-orbit-for-next-4000-years/819722/

 

3. With respect to Lagrange points, Consider the following statements

1)    They are positions in space where the gravitational forces of a two-body system produce enhanced regions of attraction and repulsion.

2)    These can be used by spacecraft to reduce fuel consumption needed to remain in position.

3)    There are five special points.

 

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)    1 and 2 only

b)    2 and 3 only

c)     1 only

d)    1,2 and 3

 

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

 

Explanation:

 

In NEWS: Earth has a second ‘Trojan’ asteroid, will share its orbit for next 4,000 years

·       Lagrange Points are are positions where the gravitational pull of two large masses precisely equals the centripetal force required for a small object to move with them.

·       These are positions in space where the gravitational forces of a two body system like the Sun and the Earth produce enhanced regions of attraction and repulsion.

·       These can be used by spacecraft to reduce fuel consumption needed to remain in position.

·       There are five special points where a small mass can orbit in a constant pattern with two larger masses. Of the five Lagrange points, three are unstable and two are stable. The unstable Lagrange points are L1, L2 and L3 and the stable Lagrange points L4 and L5.

·       The L1 point of the Earth-Sun system provide an uninterrupted view of the sun. In order to get the continuous view of the sun Aditya- L1 satellite will be placed in the halo orbit around the Lagrangian point 1 (L1) of the sun-earth system.

Source: https://theprint.in/science/earth-has-a-second-trojan-asteroid-will-share-its-orbit-for-next-4000-years/819722/

 

 

4. Consider the following statements regarding River Cities Alliance

1)    It has been launched by the Ministry of Jal Shakti and the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.

2)    It is open to all river cities of India.

 

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)    1 only

b)    2 only

c)     Both 1 and 2

d)    Neither 1 nor 2

 

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

 

Explanation:

 

In NEWS: River Cities Alliance

·       The River Cities Alliance (RCA) has been launched with the objective to provide the member cities with a platform to discuss and exchange information on aspects that are vital for sustainable management of urban rivers, sharing best practices and supporting innovation.

·       The alliance has been launched initially with 30 cities.

·       The Alliance is open to all river cities of India. Any river city can join the Alliance at any time.

·       State Governments are implementing Action Plans for restoration of water quality of the identified polluted river stretches.

·       RCA is envisaged as a facilitatory platform for initiating river-sensitive planning and development. Namami Gange through its integrated and comprehensive framework has been working towards rejuvenating Ganga river basin.

·       As cities start to implement the river-sensitive development agenda, the River Cities Alliance will support them to learn from each other and inspire others to take up progressive action on this front.

Source: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleseDetail.aspx?PRID=1795103

 

5. Consider the following statements regarding Heli-borne Survey Technology

1)    It has been developed by CSIR-NGRI Hyderabad.

2)    It will provide high-resolution 3D image for sub-surface up to a depth of 500 meters below the ground level and map potential groundwater sources.

 

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)    1 only

b)    2 only

c)     Both 1 and 2

d)    Neither 1 nor 2

 

Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2

 

Explanation:

 

In NEWS: Heli-borne survey for water management likely to be completed by Mar 31: Govt

·       The Central Ground Water Board’s heli-borne survey for generation of aquifer-related information and its management in certain arid and semi-arid areas of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Haryana under the Ground Water Management and Regulation scheme is likely to be completed by March 31.

About Heli-borne geophysical mapping

·       Heli-borne geophysical mapping technique will provide high-resolution 3D image for sub-surface up to a depth of 500 meters below the ground level and map potential groundwater sources.

·       This latest technology is being employed by CSIR to map groundwater sources in arid regions and utilise groundwater for drinking purposes.

·       It will provide information about level, quantity, quality and information of ground water.

·       This survey will be carried out in two phases, of which the first phase comprises an area spanning 1 lakh sq km.

·       This includes 65,000 sq km in Rajasthan, 32,000 sq km in Gujarat and 2,500 sq km in Haryana.

·       It is to be implemented in collaboration with the Ministry of Jal Shakti as a part of National Aquifer Mapping Project.

·       It will help in water conservation, identification of new places for ground water recharging and that too at lesser cost than the prevalent ones like digging tube wells using geophysics and remote sensing techniques.

·       It will help in devising new schemes for improvement in water level in water scant areas.

Source: https://theprint.in/india/heli-borne-survey-for-water-management-likely-to-be-completed-by-mar-31-govt/821045/

 

6. Consider the following statements regarding Legislative Powers of Governor

1)    He has powers to summon and prorogue state legislature and dissolve the state assembly.

2)    All the bills passed by the state legislatures are sent to the Governor for assent.

3)    He has power of promulgating the ordinances during the recess of the State legislature.

 

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)    1 and 2 only

b)    2 and 3 only

c)     1 only

d)    1,2 and 3

 

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

 

Explanation:

 

In NEWS: Governor has failed in his Constitutional duty by not sending NEET abolition Bill to President

The Governor had returned the Bill to the Assembly Speaker instead of forwarding it for Presidential assent.

Powers with regard to state legislature

·       Governor has powers to summon and prorogue state legislature and dissolve the state assembly.  

·       He addresses the first session of the state legislature after the general elections in the state.

·       He also appoints 1/6th members of the State legislative Council in states wherever there is bicameral legislature.

·       He also nominates one member in state legislative assembly from the Anglo-Indian Community if in view, the community is not well represented.

The powers with regard to Bills

All the bills passed by the state legislatures are sent to the Governor for assent. Once a bill is sent to Governor for assent, he can:

·         give assent to the bill

·         withhold the assent

·         return the bill to legislature for reconsideration {if it is not a money bill}. If the bill is re-passed by legislature with or without amendment, the governor has to give assent to the bill.

·         Reserve the bill for consideration of the President in circumstances when the bill violates constitution or is against directive principles of state policy or may involve some kind of conflict with union powers or is against the larger interest of country and people or may endanger the position of the high court in the state.

Ordinance Making Powers

As per provisions of article 213, the Governor has special legislative power of promulgating the ordinances during the recess of the State legislature.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/governor-has-failed-in-his-constitutional-duty-by-not-sending-neet-abolition-bill-to-president-says-tn-cm-stalin/article38381731.ece

 

7. Consider the following statements regarding Agreement on TRIPS

1)    It aims for the transfer of technology from developed country members to least-developed countries.

2)    It is applicable to all WTO members.

3)    It is introduced global minimum standards for protecting and enforcing nearly all forms of intellectual property rights including those for patents.

 

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

a)    1 and 2 only

b)    2 and 3 only

c)     1 only

d)    1,2 and 3

 

Answer: (d) 1,2 and 3

Explanation:

 

In NEWS: India risks being edged out of patent waiver plan at WTO

·       India runs the risk of being excluded from a proposal it co-authored at the World Trade Organisation (WTO) negotiations, in 2020, to “temporarily waive” intellectual property rights (IPR) held, by primarily Western countries, on vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostics for covid-19.

·       Apart from the proposal on geographical exclusions to cut Indian and Chinese companies out of the waivers, other proposals, sources suggest, include limiting the kind of medical products to counter the pandemic that would be on the list of waivers, as well as restricting the waivers to a certain part of the Intellectual property (IP), and not a full product and patent waiver.

About Agreement on TRIPS

·       The TRIPS Agreement has been in force since 1995 and is to date the most comprehensive multilateral agreement on intellectual property.

·       The TRIPS Agreement introduced global minimum standards for protecting and enforcing nearly all forms of intellectual property rights (IPR), including those for patents.

·       TRIPS establishes minimum standards for the availability, scope, and use of seven forms of intellectual property namely, trademarks, copyrights, geographical indications, patents, industrial designs, layout designs for integrated circuits, and undisclosed information or trade secrets.

·       It applies basic international trade principles regarding intellectual property to member states.

·       It is applicable to all WTO members.

·       TRIPS Agreement lays down the permissible exceptions and limitations for balancing the interests of intellectual property with the interests of public health and economic development.

·       TRIPS is the most comprehensive international agreement on IP and it has a major role in enabling trade in creativity and knowledge, in resolving trade disputes over intellectual property, and in assuring WTO members the latitude to achieve their domestic policy objectives.

·       It frames the IP system in terms of innovation, technology transfer and public welfare.

Source: https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-risks-being-edged-out-of-patent-waiver-plan-at-wto/article38384490.ece

 

 

8. The black cotton soil of India has been formed due to the weathering of

a)    brown forest soil

b)    fissure volcanic rock

c)     granite and schist

d)    shale and limestone

 

Answer: (b) fissure volcanic rock

 

Explanation:

 

·       Black soils are mineral soils which have a black surface horizon, enriched with organic carbon that is at least 25 cm deep.

·       Black soil is formed due to the weathering or erosion of the basalt rocks. Hence, option (b) is the correct answer.

 

 

 

Topics: UPSC, IAS/IPS/IFS/IRS, Civil Services Examination, prelims, prelims practice questions, Prelims mcq, prelims mcq questions

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