UPSC MAINS

 

Daily Answer Writing Session - 28_August 2020

Posted by R&D, KingMakers IAS Academy on Aug 31, 2020 10:45:43 AM

UPSC CSE MAINS SYLLABUS - GS – 3- Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization of resources, growth, development and employment.

QUESTION: In recent there has been a spurt in digitization. Can digitization help in bringing inclusive growth in India? What steps should be taken to realize the goal of inclusive growth in digital economy? (250 words, 15 marks).

Approach:  Introduce – explain the surge in digitization- inclusive growth – how is digitization bringing it – what are the issues – so what needs to be done – explain all these - Conclude.  

Digitization has been the buzzword of 21st century with focus on digital economy. Digital  economy refers to an economy that is based on digital computing and networking technologies like  internet, Information Technology etc. 

How the digitization promotes development 

Digitization through Internet connectivity promotes development through three main mechanisms: 

inclusion, efficiency and innovation. More and more people can be included into the mainstream 

through digital means.

Like M-Pesadigital payment system has brought financial inclusion and Ali  Baba’s business –to –business e commerce model has integrated many small and medium enterprises, 

Aadhaar are all examples of inclusion, efficiency and innovation. 

The dividends: Growth, jobs, and service delivery 

  • For businesses, the internet promotes inclusion of firms in the world economy by expanding 

trade, raises the productivity of capital, and intensifies competition in the marketplace, which 

in turn induces innovation. Which in return will further help creating new employment 

opportunities for large sections of population. 

  • It enables citizens to access public services, strengthens government capability, and serves as  a platform for citizens to tackle collective action problems. Better service delivery in areas of  health, education, government schemes for the benefit of disadvantaged section will help in  their development and mainstreaming.

As India does not suffer from lack of schemes but from  their proper implementation, digitization can help. 

These benefits are neither automatic nor assured, but in numerous instances digital technologies can 

bring significant gains. 

Government’s efforts: 

Digital India programme to provide assured access to digital services. 

Digitization and rural economy: National Optical Fiber Network to provide digital connectivity all 

villages and boost village level employment. 

Digitization and agriculture: e-NAM is envisaged to benefit farmers by helping them getting better 

price of their crops. E-Mandis to provide price information, Kissan Call centers, precision agriculture, 

etc. are other methods which can help farmers to be part of inclusive growth. 

Digitization and MSME: MSME virtual cluster. Virtual Clusters is a dedicated web-portal which will  enable small businesses located anywhere in the country and the other stakeholders like banks, other  financial institutions, various Government bodies, NGOs, industry experts, consultants and trainers,  academia, research & technical institutions etc. to come together. This will facilitate the stakeholders  to leverage the expertise of each other to their mutual growth and benefit. 

Digitization and STs: government has started a web portal to help STs find out the prices of minor  forest produce, a web portal to facilitate equitable access and benefit sharing of the biodiversity will  help STs gain from digitization. 

Digitization and Women: women have been selling their produce through e-retail methods, women  SHG have gained significantly from e-retail methods. Through gender digital atlas better targeting of  girl related schemes can be done. 

Apart from these mentioned Digitization can bring inclusive growth to North East, SCs, disabled  through various services like financial inclusion, health, education, skill development, etc. 

The risks: Concentration, inequality, and control 

  • It says that nearly 60% of world population is offline and thus hampering their participation in the digital economy in any meaningful way.
  • Polarization of labor markets because technologies replacing low skill jobs and augmenting high skill jobs, policy capture by elites because of public sector investment  in digital technologies in the absence of accountable institutions and because the economics of the  internet favor natural monopolies. 
  • The absence of a competitive business environment can result in more concentrated markets, benefiting incumbent firms.
  • Not surprisingly, the better educated, well connected, and more capable have received  most of the benefits—circumscribing the gains from the digital revolution. 

Therefore there is need to make digitization process universal , affordable, open and safe.

This can be done through: 

  • Regulations that promote competition and entry by lowering the barriers to digital adoption, increasing competition through effective regulation and enforcement and tailoring “new economy”  regulations to ensure competition. 
  • Skills for the digital economy: Start early with foundational skills, rethink curricula and  teaching methods and develop advanced technological skills and encourage lifelong learning. 
  • Institutions that are accountable to citizens: Improve informational services and monitoring, strengthen e-government delivery and citizen engagement, deepen collaboration and participatory  policy making 
  • Digital safeguards and Developing privacy policies: Digital safeguardsneeds to be created to  secure the large amount of data that has been collected. For example security of data collected  through Aadhaar needs to be secured through laws and proper infrastructure. 

 

 Source:”Economic Times”.


 

UPSC CSE MAINS SYLLABUS - GS –1- Salient features of world’s physical geography.

Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian subcontinent);

QUESTION: Explain briefly the formation of the Himalayas. What are the consequences of the movement of the northern movement of the Indian plate?

  1. (250 words, 15 marks)

Approach: Introduce – explain how the Himalayas came in to being – explain the geophysical movement – explain northern movement – its consequences - Conclude. 

 

Pangaea formed through a gradual process spanning a few hundred million years.

Beginning about 480 million years ago, a continent called Laurentia, which includes parts of North America, merged with several other micro-continents to form Euramerica. Euramerica eventually collided with Gondwana, another supercontinent that included Africa, Australia, South America and the Indian subcontinent. 

About 200 million years ago, the supercontinent began to break up. Gondwana (what is now Africa, South America, Antarctica, India and Australia) first split from Laurasia (Eurasia and North America). Then about 150 million years ago, Gondwana broke up. India peeled off from Antarctica, and Africa and South America rifted.  

Around 60 million years ago, North America split off from Eurasia. 

 

India and Himalayas: 

 

  • 225 million years ago (Ma) India was a large island situated off the Australian coast and separated from Asia by the Tethys Ocean. 
  • The supercontinent Pangea began to break up 200 Ma and India started a northward drift towards Asia.
  • 80 Ma India was 6,400 km south of the Asian continent but moving towards it at a rate of between 9 and 16 cm per year.
  • At this time Tethys Ocean floor would have been subducting northwards beneath Asia and the plate margin would have been a Convergent oceanic-continental one just like the Andes today.
  • As seen in the animation below not all of the Tethys Ocean floor was completely subducted; most of the thick sediments on the Indian margin of the ocean were scraped off and accreted onto the Eurasian continent in what is known as an accretionary wedge.
  • These scraped-off sediments are what now form the Himalayan mountain range.
  • From about 50-40 Ma the rate of northward drift of the Indian continental plate slowed to around 4-6 cm per year.
  • This slowdown is interpreted to mark the beginning of the collision between the Eurasian and Indian continental plates, the closing of the former Tethys Ocean, and the initiation of Himalayan uplift.
  • (Note that in the above animation the continental plates are shown to collide at 10 Ma; this should instead read 50 Ma.)
  • The Eurasian plate was partly crumpled and buckled up above the Indian plate but due to their low density/high buoyancy neither continental plate could be subducted.
  • This caused the continental crust to thicken due to folding and faulting by compressional forces pushing up the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau.

 

Consequences of the northern movement of Indian plate: 

  1. As there is Himalayas, India is getting a strong monsoon and got rid of cold winds in Dec-Jan months.
  2. From the glaciers of Himalayas, rivers are flowing into the mainland. Centering around this rivers, earliest human civilizations were established.
  3. Indian plate movements are generating devastating earthquakes, that will continue in future also.
  4. Due to the plate movement some typical folds have formed which are now world's highest petroleum reservoir (Zagros belt, Assam).
  5. flora and fauns diversified as the got separated.

The Himalayas directly influence the 

  1. Climate (Monsoon, Prevents Cold air from Central Asia) ,
  2. Rivers (Ganga/ Ganges, Yamuna, Sindhu/Indus, every major river of North India finds its origin in Himalayas) - in turn Electricity.
  3. Religion
  4. Agriculture
  5. Tourism
  6. Bio-Diversity and Life.

 

Source:”NCERT”.

Topics: digitization, inclusive growth in digital economy, world’s physical geography, formation of the Himalayas

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