GS 2: Polity and Governance
Question 1: “A properly framed All India Judicial Service is important to strengthen the overall justice delivery system, especially at the district and subordinate court level.” Critically analyse.
Approach: Introduction - All India Judicial Service - Benefits of AIJS- Opposition to the AIJS- Conclusion.
The central government is preparing to give a fresh push to the establishment of an All India Judicial Service (AIJS) on the lines of the central civil services.
All India Judicial Service (AIJS):
- Articles 233 and 234 of the Constitution of India deal with the appointment of district judges, and place it in the domain of the states.
- The idea of a centralised judicial service was first mooted in the Law Commission’s 1958 ‘Report on Reforms on Judicial Administration’.
- The idea was to ensure an efficient subordinate judiciary, to address structural issues such as varying pay and remuneration across states, to fill vacancies faster, and to ensure standard training across states.
Benefits of AIJS:
- All India Judicial Service is important to strengthen the overall justice delivery system, especially at the district and subordinate court level.
- It will also address the issue of social inclusion by enabling suitable representation to marginalised and deprived sections of society
- All India Judicial Service (AIJS) will give an opportunity for induction of suitably qualified fresh legal talent through a proper all-India merit selection system.
- AIJS will ensure a transparent and efficient recruitment method to attract the best talent in the Indian legal profession. The prospects for promotion to the superior courts, for the lower judiciary, at an early age would also increase, as they currently join at a much later age than Bar Association judges.
- The quality of adjudication and administration of justice would achieve uniformity throughout the country by eliminating differences at the state level in laws, practices, and standards.
- A well-organized judicial service can attract talent from our law schools and young and well-informed judicial officers at the additional district judge level will make a difference. As ADJs and district judges, they can help the court system move faster and more efficiently.
- AIJS would be able to promote an all-India outlook and promote national This will allow the talented Judges of AIJS officers to function beyond their regional and linguistic interests.
Opposition to the AIJS:
- Language and representation, for example, are key concerns highlighted by states. Judicial business is conducted in regional languages, which could be affected by central recruitment.
- Reservations based on caste, and even for rural candidates or linguistic minorities in the state, could be diluted in a central test
- The creation of AIJS will not address the structural issues plaguing the lower judiciary.
- Increasing pay across the board and ensuring that a fraction of High Court judges are picked from the lower judiciary, may help better than a central exam to attract quality talent.
- Most of the high courts want the administrative control over the subordinate judiciary to remain with the respective high courts
- The dilution of the federal structure and that the proposal does not address structural issues plaguing the lower judiciary, including low pay and fewer chances of being promoted to the higher judiciary
The AIJS has been pitched as a solution to judicial vacancies, lack of representation for the marginalised on the bench and the failure to attract the best candidate. As demonstrated in this primer, many of these issues have been incorrectly diagnosed.
GS Paper – 2 Bilateral Groupings & Agreements
Question 2: India’s reliance on OPEC countries for energy security will never be a long term solution. Discuss the alternatives for India in achieving energy security in the long term.
Approach: Introduction - Indo-Russia Energy Partnership - Way forward - Conclusion
India has been at the forefront of the transformation of global energy and striving to diversify its trade relations. With its abundant energy sources and appetite for trade diversification, Russia could be an ultimate long-term partner.
Indo-Russia Energy Partnership:
- The India-Russia energy partnership can bring stability to the global energy market, while the International North-South Transport Corridor will bring the two countries closer.
- It is a multi-mode network of ship, rail, and road routes for moving freight between India, Iran, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Russia, Central Asia and Europe.
- India and Russia have a long-standing relationship and securing an economic and energy partnership is important from both the diplomatic and geopolitical perspectives.
- Russia has a vital role in ensuring India’s energy security in the coming decade. India imports oil, mostly from the volatile region of the Middle East.
- India and Russia secure the potential of designing a nuclear reactor specifically for developing countries, which is a promising area of cooperation.
- India’s nuclear power generation capacity of 6,780 MW may increase to 22,480 MW by 2031, contributing to the country’s efforts to turn to green energy.
- The time has come for India and Russia to significantly enhance infrastructure and joint development plans to boost bilateral trade, especially in the energy sector.
- Russia is actively pursuing a strategic re-direction toward Asia, but geopolitical instability in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region threatens to affect its import routes.
- For India, importing gas and oil from Russia is important if the long-term strategy is to diversify India's crude oil supplies from non-OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) countries.
- India-Russia economic relations carry a lot of potential, but they need to be scaled up.
- Both sides need to move beyond traditional areas of cooperation and explore areas like medical supplies, agricultural produce, and information technology, among others, to enhance bilateral ties.
Bilateral ties with Russia are a key pillar of India's foreign policy. India sees Russia as a longstanding and time-tested friend that has played a significant role in its economic development and security. India-Russia ties have acquired a qualitatively new character with enhanced levels of cooperation taking place in almost all areas of the bilateral relationship including political, security, trade and economy, defense, science and technology, and culture.